“Universal health care” refers to an all-inclusive system of government-provided healthcare for its citizens. Some countries, like Denmark, Norway and Spain, employ centralized health systems while others opt for national health insurance models with payroll taxes or deductions as their system of choice.
Brazil provides free healthcare coverage to its citizens and legal residents through the Sistema Unico de Saude. Other nations with universal coverage include Australia, New Zealand and France.
Canada’s universal health care system covers nearly all hospital and doctor visits for its citizens and permanent residents, funded through taxes and social contributions rather than employer or individual health insurance plans.
Canada’s federal system makes it possible for provinces to actively contribute in shaping and running national health policy–an essential element found among other OECD nations that have implemented universal coverage. But this doesn’t necessitate single payer coverage – Great Britain, Germany and France all use central/provincial fund sharing arrangements instead; all systems raise necessary monies through general revenues that tap a broad source of wealth.
Countries that provide universal healthcare provide public coverage to all their citizens or residents through a central government fund; costs for services are paid out of this fund. Such systems offer comprehensive medical care including preventive and chronic services.
However, their respective systems differ greatly in how they finance themselves; Great Britain, France and Canada primarily rely on general tax revenue while Germany relies heavily on social insurance contributions for funding its system.
South Korea employs a Beveridge system where citizens and permanent residents are automatically enrolled, mandating that all residents obtain health insurance coverage. Australia, Austria and Belgium use National Health Insurance systems that cover most healthcare costs for workers while those living outside must contribute toward these systems as well.
3. United Kingdom
The United Kingdom offers universal healthcare through the National Health Service (NHS), giving all citizens and residents of its territory free medical attention regardless of their ability to pay.
While the NHS enjoys high customer satisfaction ratings, it still faces challenges including lengthy waiting times and unfunded services. Nonetheless, Britain remains committed to its founding principles of free delivery and central funding.
In the UK, individuals can purchase private medical insurance to cover more expensive procedures not covered by the National Health Service (NHS). Such policies often come at reduced or even no cost for disabled, elderly and child patients; furthermore, NHS is currently experimenting with personalized medicine as one model of personalized medicine delivery.
Israel boasts one of the world’s most advanced and efficient universal health care systems. Coverage extends to all citizens and permanent residents through four independent health maintenance organizations that offer mandatory baskets of services including hospital, primary healthcare, specialty care, mental healthcare, maternity care and prescription medicines.
The government sets fees for service providers through a joint Ministry of Health and Finance committee. Furthermore, it supports various supplemental insurance plans that extend coverage beyond what’s available through public “basket” of services; often these private options overlap with coverage offered by health funds; this results in some subscribers paying twice for similar services.
Italy provides universal health care, meaning all citizens and residents have access to medical attention; however, the system isn’t entirely cost-free; patients must pay a small fee at each doctor visit and hospital stay.
This centralized healthcare system is popular in Nordic countries, Spain and New Zealand and operates under the principle that access should not depend on employment status.
Chile has a public health care system funded through general taxation and employer contributions that provides coverage to approximately 75% of its population. Chile also boasts an universal health care system called FONASA which covers all citizens and residents but may present challenges like long waiting times.
Kuwait’s public hospitals provide free healthcare to local citizens; however, expatriates must pay an annual fee in order to access similar healthcare services. Furthermore, expatriates are strongly advised to secure international health insurance when living here.
Country is divided into five administrative regions and each area features both large general hospitals and many smaller private ones, although waiting times at public facilities can sometimes be lengthy; ex-pats may need to visit private facilities if their condition requires immediate care.
This workshop will address the role of health financing in attaining universal health coverage (UHC), featuring UHC country experiences from Bangladesh, Albania, Algeria, Australia, France, Germany, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Israel, Nepal and South Africa.